Key Takeaways

  • Cryptocurrency mining, especially Bitcoin, is highly energy-intensive.
  • The U.S. accounts for 37.84% of Bitcoin mining activities.
  • Bitcoin mining produces nearly 38 kilotons of electronic waste annually.
  • Alternatives to mining exist, but Bitcoin is unlikely to change its consensus algorithm.

Cryptocurrency Energy Consumption

Estimating the energy used for cryptocurrency mining is complex. Bitcoin’s estimated consumption is 85 Terawatt-hours (TWh) of electricity and 218 TWh of energy—more than Belgium and Finland. Ethereum’s energy requirements have dropped significantly since its proof of work upgrade in September 2022.

Why Cryptocurrency Mining Requires Energy

The energy intensity of crypto mining is intentional. It’s the automated process of validating transactions without third-party intervention. The network relies on the computational power of mining machines, ensuring the security of cryptocurrency blockchains.

Environmental Impacts of Cryptocurrency Mining

The carbon footprint of cryptocurrency is challenging to calculate. Bitcoin’s network is responsible for about 73 million tons of carbon dioxide per year. Ethereum’s emissions dropped to 0.01 million tons after transitioning to proof of work.

Countries with the Largest Impact

Most Bitcoin mining occurs in the U.S., China, and Kazakhstan, responsible for around 72% of the world’s Bitcoin mining. These countries heavily depend on fossil fuels.

Electronic Waste

Cryptocurrency mining generates significant electronic waste, especially from specialized machines like ASIC miners. The Bitcoin network generates approximately 38 thousand tons of electronic waste annually.

Could Cryptocurrency Mining Use Less Energy?

Cryptocurrency transactions and coin minting don’t need to be energy-intensive. Alternatives like proof-of-stake (PoS) don’t use extensive computing power. Other methods are being developed, but Bitcoin’s enormous energy costs are likely here to stay.

Is Cryptocurrency Environmentally Friendly?

Some cryptocurrencies have intense energy requirements and generate lots of waste, making them environmentally unfriendly. However, the environmental costs of traditional banking systems must also be considered.

Can Bitcoin Become Environmentally Friendly?

Bitcoin’s validation process is energy-intensive and competitive. It is unlikely to reduce its energy footprint, even after the last bitcoin is rewarded.

How Much of Crypto is Renewable?

There is not enough official information to determine how much energy consumed by cryptocurrencies is from renewable sources.


Cryptocurrency mining, particularly Bitcoin, has a significant environmental impact. The energy consumption, carbon emissions, and electronic waste associated with mining are considerable. Alternatives to mining exist, but the transition is slow, especially for Bitcoin. The debate on the environmental friendliness of cryptocurrencies continues, with no clear consensus on reducing their ecological footprint.